How does bariatric surgery reduce the risk of death?

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Experts say there are many health benefits of having weight loss surgery. Portra / Getty Images
  • Many people use bariatric surgery to help facilitate weight loss.
  • Researchers say the surgery can also lower the death rate from most causes, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
  • They say their findings also include information that can help people decide whether to have surgery and what to do next.

People who undergo bariatric surgery seem to have a lower chance of dying from most causes.

Among other conditions, the death rate from diabetes decreased by 72% with bariatric surgery, according to a reference study Published today in the magazine obesity.

The researchers studied the health data of nearly 22,000 people who underwent any of the four types of bariatric surgery between 1982 and 2018.

Mortality from all causes and states for specific causes, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, in subjects who had bariatric surgery, was compared to non-surgical participants matched for age, sex, and BMI.

Results included:

  • All-cause mortality was 16% lower in patients who had surgery than in those who did not.
  • The death rate from cardiovascular diseases decreased by 29%.
  • The death rate from cancer decreased by 43%.
  • The death rate from diabetes decreased by 72%.
  • Mortality rates from chronic liver disease were 83% higher in those who had the surgery

“This study is another reaffirmation of previous studies showing the long-term benefits of bariatric surgery,” said Dr. Mir Ali, bariatric surgeon and medical director of MemorialCare Weight Loss Surgical Center at Orange Coast Medical Center in California.

“The surgery has many long-term health benefits and increases life expectancy. The decrease in death rates from all causes shows that obesity can negatively affect every organ system in the body, and by reaching a healthy weight, A person can reverse these effects.

The researchers noted that higher rates of suicide in younger participants may indicate the need for more detailed psychological examination before and after surgery.

“Bariatric surgery is life-changing,” said Dr. Megan Jenkins, a general surgeon who specializes in advanced laparoscopy, bariatrics, and general surgery at NYU Langone Health in New York.

“Bariatric surgery is like hitting the reset button,” Jenkins told Healthline. “After surgery, you need to change your eating habits. Healthy eating after surgery means eating proteins and limiting carbohydrates and sweets. You start a new lifestyle.”

Bariatric surgery, also called weight loss surgery, makes changes to the digestive system to help people lose weight.

exist Four types According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Sleeve gastrectomy It removes most of a person’s stomach, leaving a smaller, banana-shaped section, which limits the amount of food that can fit in you, making you feel full in no time. Changes in hormones, bacteria, and the digestive system in response to surgery can affect appetite and metabolism.

Gastric bypass Three steps. The first is to reduce the size of the stomach by stapling a section. The second involves removing the upper part of your small intestine, allowing food to bypass most of your stomach and upper part of your small intestine. Your body absorbs fewer calories. Finally, the upper part of the small intestine is reconnected to the lower part of the intestine, allowing the digestive juices from the stomach to bypass the upper part of the small intestine.

that Gastric band surgeryIt involves placing a saline-filled strip around the upper part of your stomach to make it smaller. The doctor can adjust the bracelet to change the size of the opening by injecting or removing some fluids. This type of surgery is not performed as often as other types of surgery because of complications and because other types of gastric bypass surgery allow for greater weight loss.

Diversion of the biliary pancreas by duodenal switch surgery two parts. The first is like gagging the stomach and the second moves part of the small intestine. This type of surgery allows for the most significant weight loss but is also associated with vitamin, mineral and protein deficiencies because you absorb less than if you had not had the surgery. It may be the best choice for obese people and certain health conditions.

The new study provides information that doctors can share with their patients as they make a decision.

“Most people who are overweight have two goals in mind when trying to lose weight; bariatric surgeon Dr. Brian Kipman, founder of the new program in Orange County, California, and author of Dietary Rebuild, said.

Other studies show improvements in quality of life. This study confirms that improvements in their health translate into a lower risk of premature death.

“I will also use the information about liver disease as a warning to my patients to be mindful of their post-operative drinking habits,” Kepeman added.

Bariatric surgery qualifications may vary from doctor to doctor.

According to the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, these include people with a BMI of 35 or greater and individuals with a BMI between 30 and 35 who have metabolic disease.

“It is important that everyone undergo psychological screening, especially with the study finding that suicide rates increased after surgery,” Jenkins said. “One of the things I look for is the patient’s level of confidence. Do they think this will work? Do they think the surgery will improve their lives? Are they confident that this is the right thing, and that they can follow the diet after surgery?”

Many bariatric programs and insurance companies require a psychological examination prior to surgery.

“Perhaps more research is needed into the screening process and more effective ways to identify people who are at risk,” Ali said. “Careful, long-term follow-up has always been an integral part of our program. I believe it is and should be an essential part of every comprehensive weight loss program.”

In the days after surgery, people tend to experience typical post-surgery symptoms, such as fatigue, pain around the incision, weakness, loss of appetite, gas, and emotional ups and downs, according to the University of California, San Francisco.

The best way to a speedy recovery is to be active as soon as possible under the supervision of a medical professional.

Exercising is essential after bariatric surgery. Experts say you should try to get up and move around the same day or the next. Try to walk at least three times a day in addition to your leg exercises. A physical therapist can help you determine how much movement is best.

“A key factor in successfully maintaining weight after bariatric surgery is exercise,” said Kepeman. All patients say they want to lose weight to increase their physical activity. Medical professionals should reinforce this goal before and after surgery and tell patients that this increase in physical activity locks in their lasting success.”